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Ilmuwan Mengembangkan Plastik Daur Ulang

Ilmuwan di Laboratorium Nasional Lawrence Berkeley di California mungkin telah menciptakan plastik revolusioner yang berpotensi untuk dapat didaur ulang tanpa batas, menawarkan harapan bagi krisis lingkungan yang disebabkan oleh sampah plastik.

Plastik tradisional telah menjadi kontributor utama masalah polusi global, dengan 90% di antaranya tidak dapat didaur ulang.

Plastik ini sering dibuat dari petrokimia yang terbatas dan mencemari. Namun, tim peneliti di Berkeley Lab telah merekayasa pendekatan inovatif untuk mengatasi masalah ini.

Terobosan mereka terletak pada poli(diketoenamine), atau PDK, plastik yang dapat berulang kali didekonstruksi menjadi blok bangunan murni dan dibentuk kembali menjadi produk baru tanpa kehilangan kualitas. 

Meskipun PDK pada awalnya berasal dari petrokimia, para peneliti dengan cerdik merekayasa mikroba, khususnya E. coli, untuk menghasilkan bioTAL (asam triasetat lakton) – salah satu bahan awal PDK. 

Hasilnya, PDK dengan 80% bio-konten yang luar biasa, menghadirkan alternatif yang berkelanjutan untuk plastik konvensional.

Baca: Cat Putih Pemecah Rekor Bertujuan untuk Mengatasi Perubahan Iklim

Dr Brett Helms, pemimpin proyek, mengungkapkan kegembiraan atas perkembangan ini, menyatakan bahwa ini adalah pertama kalinya PDK dengan komposisi berbasis bio yang dominan telah dibuat.

Khususnya, PDK yang dibuat dari bioTAL menawarkan keunggulan dibandingkan rekan petrokimia mereka, tidak hanya dalam hal sifat material tetapi juga dalam efektivitas biaya saat diproduksi dalam skala besar.

Aplikasi potensial PDK sangat luas dan serbaguna. Dari perekat hingga barang fleksibel seperti kabel komputer dan tali jam, PDK dapat memenuhi berbagai kebutuhan. 

Satu penemuan yang mengejutkan adalah bahwa menggabungkan bioTAL ke dalam bahan memperluas rentang suhu kerjanya hingga 60 derajat Celcius dibandingkan dengan PDK tradisional. 

Ini membuka pintu untuk menggunakan PDK pada perlengkapan olahraga dan suku cadang otomotif, di mana suhu kerja tertentu sangat penting, seperti bumper atau dasbor.

Selain itu, PDK sangat penting untuk mengatasi masalah mendesak dari pasokan bahan bakar fosil yang semakin menipis. 

Profesor Jay Keasling, seorang ilmuwan fakultas senior di Area Biosains Lab Berkeley, menekankan pentingnya menciptakan bahan yang dapat diperbarui secara biologis dan melingkar untuk memecahkan masalah sampah plastik secara berkelanjutan.

Studi penelitian, yang dipublikasikan di Nature Sustainability, dibangun di atas analisis lingkungan dan teknologi tahun 2021, yang menunjukkan bahwa plastik PDK dapat bersaing secara komersial dengan plastik konvensional dalam skala besar. 

Tim ini yakin bahwa dengan perbaikan lebih lanjut pada proses produksi, plastik PDK berbasis bio bisa lebih murah dan mengeluarkan lebih sedikit CO2 daripada rekan mereka yang berbasis bahan bakar fosil.

Saat dunia mencari solusi yang lebih berkelanjutan, pengembangan plastik PDK yang dapat didaur ulang tanpa batas berdiri sebagai mercusuar harapan untuk masa depan yang lebih hijau. 

Dengan memberi insentif pada penggunaan bahan berbasis bio, kita dapat bergerak menuju ekonomi sirkular, mengubah sampah menjadi keajaiban dan membuka jalan menuju dunia yang lebih bersih dan ramah lingkungan.

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